Becker's debut ranking of all 50 states for private practice physicians

A physician looking to go into private practice has to think about several factors when settling on a location. Prominent among them are the area's average pay, regulatory environment, amount of competition and individual insurance market.

Becker's ASC Review has compiled data from the 2020 Census, Bureau of Labor Statistics, state regulations on new practices and the Kaiser Family Foundation to create a ranking of all 50 states for private practice physicians.

This ranking exists nowhere else. 

State

Physicians Per 100k Population

Avg Physician Pay

Herfindahl-Hirschman Index

Becker's Composite

1. Wisconsin

2.49

$258,470

1,465

3.68

2. Colorado

4.70

$247,520

2,715

3.36

3. South Dakota

36.98

$269,100

3,279

3.17

4. Montana

32.31

$271,560

3,503

2.96

5. Arizona

4.61

$240,750

3,294

2.86

6. Indiana

6.55

$260,540

4,444

2.81

7. Maine

26.12

$279,700

3,559

2.76

8. Minnesota

4.67

$244,720

2,664

2.60

9. Idaho

19.34

$246,220

3,557

2.60

10. Missouri

4.34

$235,930

2,672

2.59

11. California

0.75

$226,200

2,973

2.51

12. Ohio

1.86

$223,960

2,194

2.36

13. Washington

4.02

$249,600

3,098

2.31

14. Texas

0.93

$213,950

2,713

2.12

15. Georgia

3.73

$251,300

3,999

2.03

16. Pennsylvania

2.22

$202,340

2,887

1.56

17. Nevada

15.30

$251,840

4,751

1.45

18. New Mexico

15.66

$212,160

3,316

1.43

19. Oregon

6.28

$205,460

2,660

1.33

20. Hawaii

35.02

$263,200

5,097

1.26

21. New Hampshire

38.31

$241,930

5,278

1.26

22. New York

0.73

$204,290

1,465

1.24

23. Iowa

15.59

$246,660

4,973

1.15

24. Florida

2.28

$220,450

4,909

1.14

25. Kentucky

12.64

$249,540

5,697

1.06

26. New Jersey

5.04

$215,980

4,681

0.98

27. Virginia

3.53

$205,720

3,046

0.60

28. Massachusetts

4.70

$187,980

3,304

0.42

29. Tennessee

4.04

$194,700

2,790

0.25

30. Arkansas

17.60

$209,160

5,299

0.14

31. Nebraska

33.20

$230,330

6,512

0.10

32. Illinois

5.05

$228,070

6,467

0.09

33. Utah

28.21

$239,450

9,228

-0.14

34. West Virginia

29.52

$222,760

5,295

-0.28

35. Maryland

9.01

$206,770

5,566

-0.50

36. Kansas

17.60

$180,960

5,172

-0.59

37. Connecticut

16.87

$210,350

6,083

-0.77

38. Michigan

3.88

$178,230

3,906

-0.85

39. South Carolina

18.49

$237,110

9,463

-1.08

40. Louisiana

20.78

$221,420

9,681

-1.19

41. Rhode Island

46.65

$206,670

5,119

-1.30

42. Mississippi

16.74

$184,170

4,958

-1.36

43. Oklahoma

22.64

$205,440

8,964

-1.59

44. North Dakota

88.12

$212,990

6,865

-1.80

45. Alabama

18.59

$213,410

9,341

-1.98

46. North Carolina

9.10

$198,750

9,505

-2.38

47. Wyoming

166.07

$263,540

9,580

-2.87

48. Alaska

136.31

$266,200

9,997

-3.16

49. District of Columbia

105.78

$212,890

7,294

-3.43

50. Delaware

100.53

$219,940

9,952

-4.07

51. Vermont

155.50

$226,390

10,000

-5.24

Note: The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index is a measure of market competitiveness, here applied to the individual insurance market. "Average physician pay" is taken from Bureau of Labor Statistics data that excludes pediatricians.

Methodology

To convert each dataset into comparable numbers, Becker's calculated the standard deviation and average of each, which were both used to determine the Z-scores for every value. The Z-score is a measure of how far a point of data is from its parent dataset's average.

For "Average physician pay," higher numbers are clearly better, but for "Physicians per 100K population" and "Herfindahl-Hirschman Index," golf rules apply: the lowest score wins. In calculating the Becker's Composite, the signs were reversed on the Z-score categories playing by golf rules, which were then summed with the physician pay Z-score and a value reflecting the restrictiveness of state regulations..

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